Dennis Kux employs the term ‘marriage of convenience’ in his book The United States and Pakistan 1947-2000: Disenchanted Allies (p.266) to elucidate the nature of the relationship between Pakistan and the United States. Many scholars have since then borrowed this expression to reflect upon the status of this relationship capturing the whole range of drama this marriage has had to offer since 1947. A simple Google search on U.S.-Pakistan relationship/marriage produces 3,270,000 results. I have compiled my Top 15 list of insights into the status of this ‘marriage’ by simply glancing at the search headings:
- America’s marriage to Pakistan: Still loveless
- Pak-U.S.-Salvaging a troubled marriage
- U.S.-Pakistan’s marriage of necessity
- U.S. Pakistan must divorce as allies
- U.S. marriage of inconvenience with Pakistan
- A troubled geostrategic marriage
- Should the U.S. and Pakistan get divorced?
- Pak-U.S-a marriage of convenience
- Trapped in an unhappy geopolitical marriage
- A bad romance: Pakistan and U.S.
- The U.S. and Pakistan: An incompatible couple
- Pakistan and the United States: A Second Marriage?
- Pak-U.S-a marriage made in hell
- U.S.-Pakistan after Bin Laden: Bad Union, No Divorce
- U.S. and Pakistan locked in a Drone-Marriage
Let me take you to 1980.
“Our position is similar to that of Poland in 1939 when the Germans and Russians wanted territory and the UK had no power to uphold the guarantees it had given. Agreements and treaties are valid only as long as they can be implemented” said Zia to Zbigniew Brzezinski, Assistant to President Carter for National Security Affairs during a meeting held on 02 February 1980 in Islamabad two months after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
During the meeting, Christopher Warren, Deputy Secretary of State, provided a breakdown of U.S. economic and military commitment to Pakistan in order to counter the Soviet threat proposing a sum of $200 million with no non-proliferation conditions attached. Zia immediately dismissed this offer as insufficient to meet Pakistan’s military needs stating, “$200 million would only buy, for instance, 12 mirages.”
In the afternoon session of the meeting, Zia began by addressing Brzezinski: “Like you, Dr. Brzezinski, I had to leave my home. My mother had to walk 80 miles in 1947 to reach the safety of Pakistan at the time of the massacre. I remained behind with the Indian army longer than anyone else and brought the very last stores, etc., with me to Pakistan in December 1947. Therefore, I will be forthright and frank.” He continued by discussing Pakistan’s expectations of security commitments from the U.S. to protect it against Soviet aggression or joint Indo-Soviet offensive and listed three priority items: “one, security guarantees; second, economic capabilities and third, military capabilities.”
Now pay attention. It is not what Zia said but that Zia said it that got me excited about sharing this bit of history with all of you, especially since his personal image is an unhappy memory for many Pakistanis:
“An antidote of the superpower is another superpower. The USSR is too much for us with or without Indian support. We could not cope with that attack, even if we had a massive military program of the kind you have provided to Egypt. Such a close “love-lock” may be impossible right now after the past differences we have had. In Islam, marriage contracts contain various stipulations, even including the amount of alimony to be paid in case of divorce. There is much talk of temporary marriage these days. The U.S. and Pakistani relationship, however, is not such a temporary marriage, but an Islamic marriage.”
So there you go. Next time someone says that Pakistan-U.S. relationship is a marriage of convenience or remark on its temporariness, please feel free to quote Zia on the Halal-ness or legitimacy of the Pak-U.S. bond and all that it entails.
Note: Halal in Arabic means ‘lawful’ and the usage of this word is not restricted to the context of permissible food items only, it can also be applied to stress the legitimacy of ‘relationships’ as well.
(Memo, National Security Council, “Pakistan: Brzezinski/Christopher Mission 2-10180,” Box 95 NSA North/South, Jimmy Carter Library)